The following 11 out of 15 criteria
|1.||Serve as a robust indicator of environmental change|
|2.||Reflect a fundamental or highly-valued aspect of the environment or an important environmental issue|
|3.||Be either national in scope or applicable to regional environmental issues of national significance|
|4.||Provide an early warning of potential problems|
|5.||Be capable of being monitored to provide statistically verifiable and reproducible data that shows trends over time and, preferably, apply to a broad range of environmental regions|
|6.||Be scientifically credible|
|7.||Be easy to understand|
|10.||Have relevance to policy and management needs|
|12.||Where possible and appropriate, facilitate community involvement|
|13.||Contribute to the fulfillment of reporting obligations under international agreements|
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Measured UVE in SEDs (July to June) and maximum UV Index (UVI*) and the date on which it occurred for Casey and Davis.
|1997/98||5500||11.5||29 Nov||4920||9.6||27 Nov|
|1998/99||5730||13.7||26 Nov||6100||10.5||18 Nov|
|1999/00||5503||11.5||22 Nov||6170||11.4||15 Dec|
|2000/01||5240||9.0||22 Dec||4840||8.8||3 Nov|
|2001/02||4894#||12.6||2 Nov||5044||12.6||22 Nov|
1 SED is 100 J.m-2when weighted with the CIE 1987 erythemal response
# 2001/02 data is incomplete ? data after Jan 31 yet to be processed.
1) The differences in yearly totals are due to weather and ozone variations.
2) Unlike mid-latitude sites, where the UV Index maxima are usually in January, Casey and Davis generally have their UV Index maxima in late November to early December.
3) Each spring there are numerous instances when anomalously low ozone over the locations causes the biometers to register increases in surface UVE (see Figures 9 and 10).
4) While Casey generally has slightly higher UV Indices than Davis, Davis has larger daily totals of UVE. This may perhaps have to do with the locations themselves (local geography, topology?).
5) With the exception of 2000 for Davis, there has been a general trend of increasing maximum UV Index. The trend in the maximum UV Index is less clear for Casey although 2000 was also an exception there. It is clear from the Figures that this trend is due largely to the ozone depletion episodes evident at the stations. For example for the summer of 2000/01 the low UV Index at both stations is clearly related to higher ozone. For early Dec 2001/02 ozone is already in excess of 320 DU whereas in early Dec 2001/02 the ozone is still below 200 DU.
6) The results for daily totals for both sites also show 2000/01 is less than the other years. However, daily totals of total UVR data (290 ?400 nm) show less of a difference between the various years.
7) There is insufficient biometer data for Macquarie Island (at this stage less than a year) to draw any conclusions from the data.
For definitions of the Scale categories, consult the Explanation of the Status Categories
|Project 1138 - Climatology and Biological Impacts of Antarctic UV Radiation|
|Project 1233 - Effects of UV radiation on community establishment: a global perspective|
|Project 2276 - Determination of the ultraviolet radiation environment at the Australian Antarctic Stations (Now Project 3106)|
|Scientific Bibliography 17233 - Roy CR, Gies HP and Elliott G. (1989) The ARL Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Measurement Programme. Transactions of the Menzies Foundation 'The Ozone Layer and Health' 15:71-76|
|Scientific Bibliography 17234 - Roy CR and Gies HP. (1989) Ozone Depletion and its Calculated Effect on Solar UVB Radiation Levels for some Australian Cities. Ch 3 in 'Health Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion' NHMRC, AGPS Canberra, p 37-69,1989.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17235 - Roy CR, Gies HP and Elliott G. (1990) Ozone Depletion. Nature Vol 347 p 235-236, 1990.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17236 - Roy CR and Gies HP, M Ilyas Ed (1991) Solar Ultraviolet Radiation: Measurement Techniques and the Australian Network. In: Ozone Depletion: Implications for the Tropics, Uni Malaysia and UNEP, 1991, pp 114-125.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17237 - Roy CR and Gies HP. (1992) Results from an Australian Solar UVR Measurement Network and Implications for Radiation Protection Policy. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, Montreal May 17-22, 1992, Vol.1 pp 759-762.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17238 - CR Roy and HP Gies. (1993) Measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in the Southern Hemisphere. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium "Environmental UV Radiation and Health Effects", Munich, Germany, May 4-6, 1993, pp 71-78.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17239 - RL McKenzie, M Kotkamp, G Seckmeyer, R Erb, CR Roy, HP Gies and SJ Toomey. (1993) First Southern Hemisphere Intercomparison of Measured Solar UV Spectra. Geophys Res Let, Vol.20 pp 2223-2226, 1993.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17240 - CR Roy, HP Gies, DW Tomlinson and D Lugg. (1994) Effects of Ozone Depletion on the ultraviolet radiation environment at the Australian Stations in Antarctica. In Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Effects. American Geophysical Union Antarctic Research Series, Vol.62 pp 1-15, 1994.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17241 - HP Gies, CR Roy, SJ Toomey and D Tomlinson. (1994) The ARL Solar UVR measurement network: Calibration and Results. Proceedings SPIE Vol.2282 pp 274-284, Ultraviolet Technology V, San Diego July 26-27, 1994.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17242 - G Seckmeyer, B Mayer, G Bernhard, RL McKenzie, PV Johnston, M Kotkamp, CR Booth, T Lucas, T Mestechkina, CR Roy, HP Gies and D Tomlinson. (1995) Geographical differences in the UV measured by intercompared spectroradiometers. Geophys Res Let Vol.22 pp 1889-1892, 1995.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17243 - CR Roy, HP Gies and S Toomey. (1995) The solar UV radiation environment: measurement techniques and results. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biology Vol.99 pp 21-27, 1995.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17244 - CR Roy, HP Gies and SJ Toomey. (1996) Climatology of UVB and ozone variations and the global solar UV-Index. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, Vienna April 14-19 1996, Vol.1 pp 353-360.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17245 - C Roy, H Gies and S Toomey. (1996) Monitoring UV-B at the earth's surface. Cancer Forum Vol.20 pp 173-179, 1996.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17246 - D Lubin, EH Jensen and P Gies. (1998) Global Surface Ultraviolet Radiation Climatology from TOMS and ERBE data. J Geophys Res Vol.103 pp 26,061-91, 1998.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17247 - CR Roy, HP Gies, DL Lugg, S Toomey and DW Tomlinson. (1998) The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation Mutation Research 422: 7-14, 1998|
|Scientific Bibliography 17248 - PM Udelhofen, P Gies, C Roy and WJ Randel. (1999) Surface UV radiation over Australia, 1979-1992: Effects of ozone and cloud cover changes on variations of UV radiation. J Geophys Res 104: 19135-19159, 1999.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17249 - L Lemus-Deschamps, L Rikus and P Gies. (1999) The operational Australian Ultraviolet Index forecast 1997. Meteorological Applications 6: 241-251, 1999.|
|Scientific Bibliography 17250 - HP Gies, CR Roy, S Toomey and D Tomlinson. (1999) Ambient Solar UVR, Personal Exposure and Protection. J Epidemiology, 9: S115-S121, 1999.|
|SOE Indicator 9 - Daily records of total column ozone at Macquarie Island|
|SOE Indicator 72 - Windmill Islands terrestrial vegetation dynamics|
The properties link can be used to view details of the parameters measured for this indicator.
|Parameter Name||Unit of measure||Properties|
|Daily UV flux||SED||Properties|