Dietary data

Download the data (CSV files), or view the metadata record.

Please cite these data when using. In general, use this citation:
Raymond, B., Marshall, M., Nevitt, G., Gillies, C., van den Hoff, J., Stark, J.S., Losekoot, M., Woehler, E.J., and Constable, A.J. (2011) A Southern Ocean dietary database. Ecology 92(5):1188. http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/trophic/. doi: 10.1890/i0012-9658-92-5-1188

If you have used data from a small number of individual sources (check the 'SOURCE_ID' values of the data you used), please cite the original data sources and additionally acknowledge this database. For example:
Smith, J. (2008) On the use of stable isotopes. Journal of Stable Isotope Stuff 123:100—110. Data obtained from http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/trophic/

Current status

Dietary sample data (gut content, etc)

Total number of records 26703
Total number of taxa 1097
Number of studies 327
Last updated 2015-02-02 11:25:28

Stable isotope data

Total number of records 1768
Total number of taxa 225
Number of studies 27
Last updated 2014-10-20 13:28:45

Current spatial coverage

Diet sample data coverage map

Current spatial coverage

Isotope data coverage map

The Southern Ocean dietary database is a compilation of trophic data from across the Southern Ocean. Data have been drawn from published literature, existing trophic data collections, AADC data sets, and unpublished collections.

Collaborators and contributors

  • Australian Antarctic Division
    • Ben Raymond, Cath Frampton (Data management, entry, analysis)
    • John van den Hoff (Seal and seabird data)
    • Jonny Stark, Chris Gillies (Nearshore benthic data)
    • Andrew Constable (Ecosystem modelling)
    • Michelle Marshall, Eric Woehler, Peter Bartley (Data entry)
  • UC Davis
    • Gabrielle Nevitt, Neurobiology, Physiology & Behavior Laboratory (Procellariiform data)
    • Marcel Losekoot, Avian Graduate Group (Procellariiform data)
  • ANTABIF
    • Bruno Danis (Data management)
  • Laboratoire d'Oc�anographie de Villefranche
    • Philippe Koubbi, Carolina Giraldo (Fish isotope data)

Support

The development of this database has been supported in part by:

Publications using this database

  • Ratcliffe N and Trathan P (2011) A review of the diet and at-sea distribution of penguins breeding within the CAMLR convention area. CCAMLR Science 18: 75–114
  • De Santana CN, Rozenfeld AF, Marquet PA, and Duarte CM (2013) Topological properties of polar food webs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 474:15–26. doi:10.3354/meps10073
  • Savoca MS and Nevitt GA (2014) Evidence that dimethyl sulfide facilitates a tritrophic mutualism between marine primary producers and top predators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1317120111
  • Poelen JH, Simons JD, and Mungall CJ (2014) Global biotic interactions: an open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics 24:148–159. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2014.08.005

Below are some examples of the types of information that will this database can provide.

  1. Prey of the Southern Elephant Seal Mirounga leonina (only the first few results are shown)
    Prey name Fraction of diet by weight
    None
    Gymnoscopelus nicholsi
    Electrona antarctica
    Myctophidae 0
    Pleuragramma antarcticum
    Gobionotothen gibberifrons
    Lepidonotothen squamifrons
    Trematomus scotti
    Pagetopsis sp.
    Chionodraco sp.
    Antarctomysis maxima
    Decapoda
  2. Predators of the gastropod Limacina helicina (only the first few results are shown)
    Predator name Location
    Abyssorchomene rossi McMurdo Sound
    Antarctomysis ohlinii McMurdo Sound
    Clione antarctica McMurdo Sound
    Epimeriella macronyx McMurdo Sound
    Eukrohnia hamata McMurdo Sound
    Hyperiella macronyx McMurdo Sound
    Limacina helicina McMurdo Sound
    Pelagobia longicirrata McMurdo Sound
    Pleuragramma antarcticum McMurdo Sound
    Trematomus bernacchii Terra Nova Bay
  3. The mean lower rostral length of Moroteuthis ingens prey specimens for different predators:
    Predator name Mean lower rostral length (mm)
    Dissostichus eleginoides 6.14
    Mirounga leonina 4.49

This is the list of references that have been used to populate the database:

Ref. ID Details
Hopkins, T.L. (1985) Food web of an Antarctic midwater ecosystem. Marine Biology 89:197-212
Hopkins, T.L., Ainley, D.G., Torres, J.J., and Lancraft, T.M. (1993) Trophic structure in open waters of the marginal ice zone in the Scotia-Weddell confluence region during spring (1983). Polar Biology 13:389-397
Hopkins, T.L. (1987) Midwater food web in McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Marine Biology 96:93-106
Montague TL (1983) The food of Antarctic petrels (Thalassoica antarctica). Emu 84:244-245
Crossley, C. and Hoddell, R. (2000, updated 2007) Pelagic Fishes of the Eastern Antarctic Ocean - data from BROKE-East survey, Australian Antarctic Data Centre - CAASM Metadata (http://aadc-maps.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/metadata_redirect.cfm?md=AMD/AU/ASAC_865)
Blankley, W. O., Grindley, J. R. (1985). The intertidal and shallow subtidal food web at Marion Island. In: Siegfried W. R., Condy, P. R., Laws, R. M. (eds.) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Springer. Berlin, p. 630-636
Bocher, P., Cherel, Y., Labat, J.-P., Mayzaud, P., Razouls, S., and Jouventin, P. (2001) Amphipod-based food web: Themisto gaudichaudii caught in nets and by seabirds in Kerguelen waters, southern Indian Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 223:261-276
Bocher, P., Cherel, Y., Alonzo, F., Razouls, S., Labat, J.P., Mayzaud, P., and Jouventin, P. (2002) Importance of the large copepod Paraeuchaeta antarctica (Giesbrecht, 1902) in coastal waters and the diet of seabirds at Kerguelen, Southern Ocean. Journal of Plankton Research 24:1317-1333
10  Coleman, C.O. (1989) Gnathiphimedia mandibularis K.H. Barnard 1930, an Antarctic amphipod (Acanthonotozomatidae, Crustacea) feeding on Bryozoa. Antarctic Science 1:343-344
11  Deagle BE, Gales NJ, Evans K, Jarman SN, Robinson S, et al. (2007) Studying Seabird Diet through Genetic Analysis of Faeces: A Case Study on Macaroni Penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). PLoS ONE 2(9): e831.
13  Hall-Aspland, S.A., and Rogers, T.L. (2004) Summer diet of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) in Prydz Bay, Eastern Antarctica. Polar Biology 27:729-734
14  Lu, C.C. and Williams, R. (1994) Contribution to the biology of squid in the Prydz Bay region, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 6(2):223-229
15  McMahon, C.R., Holley, D., and Robinson, S. (1999) The diet of itinerant make Hooker's sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri, at sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. Wildlife Research 26:839-846
16  Nicol, S. (1993) A comparison of Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica) diets with net samples of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) taken from the Prydz Bay region. Polar Biology 13:399-403
17  Oresland, V. (1995) Winter population structure and feeding of the chaetognath Eukrohnia hamata and the copopod Euchaeta antarctica in Gerlache Strait, Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Ecology Progress Series 119:77-86
18  Perissinotto, R. and McQuaid, C. (1990) Role of the sub-antarctic shrimp Nauticaris marionis in coupling benthic and pelagic food-webs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 64:81-87
19  Rodhouse, P.G., Clarke, M.R., and Murray, A.W.A. (1987) Cephalopod prey of the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. Marine Biology 96:1-10
20  Duhamel, G. and Hureau, J.C. (1985) The role of zooplankton in the diets of certain sub-Antarctic marine fish. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp.421-429
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22  Duhamel, G., and Pletikosic, M. (1983) Donnees biologiques sur les Nototheniidae des iles Crozet. Cybium 3e serie 7(3):43-57. As cited in Duhamel, G. and Hureau, J.C. (1985) The role of zooplankton in the diets of certain sub-Antarctic marine fish. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp.421-429
23  Van den Hoff, J. (2004) A comparative study of the cephalopod prey of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) near Macquarie Island. Polar Biology 27:604-612
24  Ainley, D.G., Ballard, G., Karl, B.J., and Dugger, K.M. (2005) Leopard seal predation rates at penguin colonies of different size. Antarctic Science 17(3):335-340
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29  McSweeney, E.S. (1978) Systematics and morphology of the Antarctic cranchiid squid Galiteuthis glacialis (Chun). Antarctic Research Series 27:1-39. As cited in Nemoto, T., Okiyama, M., and Takahashi, M. (1985) Aspects of the roles of squid in food chains of marine Antarctic ecosystems. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 415-420
30  Williams, R. (1985) Trophic relationships between pelagic fish and Euphausiids in Antarctic waters. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 452-459
122  Green, K. (1986) Food of the emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri on the Antarctic fast ice edge in late winter and early spring. Polar Biology, 6:187-188
123  Puddicombe, R. personal communication. As cited in Green, K. (1986) Food of the emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri on the Antarctic fast ice edge in late winter and early spring. Polar Biology, 6:187-188
125  Hodum & Whitehead (unpublished data). As cited in Whitehead, M.D. (1990) Food resource utilization by seabirds breeding in Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. 1384-1392
126  Sekiguchi, K., Klages, N., Findlay, K., and Best, P.B. (1993) Feeding habits and possible movements of southern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon planifrons). Proc. NIPR Symp. Polar Biol. 6:84-97
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128  Clarke, M. and Goodall, N. (1994) Cephalopods in the diets of three odontocete cetacean species stranded at Tierra del Fuego, Globicephala melaena (Traill, 1809), Hyperoodon planifrons (Flower, 1882) and Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacepede, 1804). Antarctic Science 6(2):149-154
129  Testa, J.W., Siniff, D.B., Ross, M.J., and Winter, J.D. (1985) Weddell seal-Antarctic cod interactions in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 561-565
130  Hubold, G. (1985) The early life-history of the high-Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarcticum. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 445-451
131  Rembizewski, J.M., Krzeptowski, M., Linkowski, T.B. (1978) Fishes as by-catch in fisheries of krill Euphausia superba Dana (Euphausiacea-Crustacea). Pol Arch Hydrbiol 25(3):677-695. As cited in Hubold, G. (1985) The early life-history of the high-Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarcticum. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 445-451
132  Kellermann, A. pers. comm. As cited in Hubold, G. (1985) The early life-history of the high-Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarcticum. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 445-451
133  Takahashi, M. (1982) Fishes caught by bottom trawl in north of South Shetland Islands. Mimeo, submitted by Dr Naito at Meeting of Working Party on Antarctic Fish Ecology, Hamburg Sept 1982. As cited in Hubold, G. (1985) The early life-history of the high-Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarcticum. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 445-451
134  DeWitt, H.H. (1970) The character of the midwater fish fauna of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. In Holdgate (ed.) Antarctic Ecology, vol I, pp.305-314. As cited in Hubold, G. (1985) The early life-history of the high-Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarcticum. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 445-451
135  Hubold, unpublished data. As cited in Hubold, G. (1985) The early life-history of the high-Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarcticum. In Sigfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., and Laws, R.M. (eds) Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 445-451
136  Ivanovic, M.L. and Brunetti, N.E. (1994) Food and feeding of Illex argentinus. Antarctic Science 6(2):185-193
137  La Mesa, M., Dalu, M., and Vacchi, M. (2004) Trophic ecology of the emerald notothen Trematomus bernacchii (Pisces, Nototheniidae) from Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biology 27:721-728
138  Xavier, J.C., Rodhouse, P.G., Purves, M.G., Daw, T.M., Arata, J., and Pilling, G.M. (2002) Distribution of cephalopods recorded in the diet of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) around South Georgia. Polar Biology 25:323-330
139  Permitin YY, Tarverdiyeva MI (1972) The food of some Antarctic fish in the South Georgia area. J Ichthyol 12:104-114. As cited in Xavier, J.C., Rodhouse, P.G., Purves, M.G., Daw, T.M., Arata, J., and Pilling, G.M. (2002) Distribution of cephalopods recorded in the diet of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) around South Georgia. Polar Biology 25:323-330
140  Xavier, J.C., Croxall, J.P., Trathan, P.N., and Rodhouse, P.G. (2003) Inter-annual variation in the cephalopod component of the diet of the wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia. Marine Biology 142:611-622
141  Corbisier, T.N., Petti, M.A.V., Skowronski, S.P., and Brito, T.A.S. (2004) Trophic relationships in the nearshore zone of Martel Inlet (King George Island, Antarctica): d13C stable-isotope analysis. Polar Biology 27:75-82
142  Kawaguchi, S. and Takahashi, Y. (1996) Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) eat salps. Polar Biology 16:479–481
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145  Kirkman, S.P., Wilson, W., Klages, N.T.W., Bester, M.N., and Isaksen, K. (2000) Diet and estimated food consumption of Antarctic fur seals at Bouvetøya during summer. Polar Biology 23:745–752
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147  van den Hoff, J., Burton, H., and Davies, R. (2003) Diet of male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L.) hauled out at Vincennes Bay, East Antarctica. Polar Biology 26:27–31
148  Daneri, G.A., Carlini, A.R., and Rodhouse, P.G.K. (2000) Cephalopod diet of the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, at King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Antarctic Science 12(1):16–19
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150  Slip, D.J. (1995) The diet of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Heard Island. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:1519–1528
152  Corkeron, P.J., Ensor, P., and Matsuoka, K. (1999) Observations of blue whales feeding in Antarctic waters. Polar Biology 22:213-215
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169  Boveng, P.L., Hiruki, L.M., Schwartz, M.K., and Bengtson, J.L. (1998) Population growth of Antarctic fur seals: limitation by a top predator, the leopard seal? Ecology 79(8):2863–2877
170  Klages, N. (1989) Food and feeding ecology of emperor penguins in the eastern Weddell Sea. Polar Biology 9:385–390
171  Lake, S.E., Burton, H., and van den Hoff, J. (2003) Regional, temporal and fine-scale spatial variation in Weddell seal diet at four coastal locations in east Antarctica. Marine Ecology Progress Series 254:293–305
172  Cerrano, C., Bavestrello, G., Calcinai, B., Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and Sara, A. (2000) Asteroids eating sponges from Tethys Bay, East Antarctica. Antarctic Science 12(4):425–426
173  Fuiman, L.A., Davis, R.W., and Williams, T.M. (2002) Behaviour of midwater fishes under Antarctic ice: observations by a predator. Marine Biology 140:815–822
174  Green, K., Williams, R., and Green, M.G. (1998) Foraging ecology and diving behaviour of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus at Heard Island. Marine Ornithology 26:27–34
175  Green, K. and Williams, R. (1986) Observations on food remains in faeces of elephant, leopard, and crabeater seals. Polar Biology 6:43–45
176  Green, K. (1986) Observations on the food of the south polar skua, Catharacta maccormicki near Davis, Antarctica. Polar Biology 6:185–186
177  Jackson, G. D., McKinnon, J. F., Lalas, C., Ardern, R., and Buxton, N. G. (1998) Food spectrum of the deepwater squid Moroteuthis ingens (Cephalopoda: Onychoteuthidae) in New Zealand waters. Polar Biology 20: 56–65
178  Hoshiai, T., Tanimura, A., and Watanabe, K. (1987) Ice algae as food of an Antarctic ice-associated copepod, Paralabidocera antarctica (I.C. Thompson). Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Biology 1:105–111
179  Watanuki, Y., Mori, Y., and Naito, Y. (1994) Euphausia superba dominates in the diet of Adelie penguins feeding under fast sea ice in the shelf areas of Enderby Land in summer. Polar Biology 14:429–432
180  Zipan, W. and Norman, F.I. (1993) Foods of the south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) in the eastern Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. Polar Biology 13:255–262
181  Zimmer, I., Piatkowski, U., and Brey, T. (2007) The trophic link between squid and the emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri at Pointe Geologie, Antarctica. Marine Biology 152:1187–1195
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183  Gales, N.J. and Burton, H.R. (1988) Use of emetics and anaesthesia for dietary assessment of Weddell seals. Australian Wildlife Research 15:423–433
184  Green, K. and Burton, H. R. (1987) Seasonal and geographic variation in the food of Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii, in Antarctica. Australian Wildlife Research 14:475–498
185  Williams, D. (1999, updated 2007) Fish biological and stomach contents data - Casey 1988, Australian Antarctic Data Centre - CAASM Metadata (http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/metadata_redirect.cfm?md=AMD/AU/c88_data)
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197  Suazo, C.G. (2008) Black-browed albatross foraging on jellyfish prey in the southeast Pacific coast, southern Chile. Polar Biology 31:755–757
198  Weimerskirch, H. (1988) How can a pelagic seabird provision its chick when relying on a distant resource? Cyclic attendance, foraging decision and body condition in sooty shearwaters. Journal of Animimal Ecology 67:99–109
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